The New Knowledge Management. Complexity, Learning, and Sustainable Innovation
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Practitioners of second-generation KM, on the other hand, adopt a more organic view; they regard information as a distant precursor to knowledge and view social processes as more critical than technology for creating new knowledge. First-generation KM is based on the assumption that knowledge is a well-defined commodity that can be easily used by people throughout a company and that the main task of KM initiatives is to leverage the use of existing knowledge by sharing it freely throughout an organization.
Technology becomes valued as an efficient means to accomplish this goal. Therefore, first-generation KM approaches typically focus on the use of technology to collect, analyze, and store data — especially best practices — that organizations can use to improve performance. They then channel this information to someone within the organization who will organize it, conduct meta-data analyses to draw overarching conclusions, and place the results into a computer database.
Such databases are then made available to employees through corporate intranets. Employees may access information such as lists of handy selling tips for approaching customers with certain profiles and strategies for increasing sales that have been developed and used successfully by other members of the sales force. Although such tools are technologically impressive, they tend to focus on identifying isolated elements of knowledge, out of their natural context, and fail to address the fundamental process by which knowledge is created in individuals and groups.
Second-generation KM seeks to address this shortcoming. The notion that sharing tips about how a colleague successfully achieved a sale presumes that others can effectively use a similar strategy without changing what they believe, how they think, or how they perceive selling situations. Such an approach reduces selling from an art that is developed over years of experience to a form of behavioral mimicry.
The New Knowledge Management - Mark W. McElroy - Google книги
Whether or not you subscribe to the increasingly popular view that first-generation KM has already proven to be ineffective, McElroy gives compelling reasons to consider switching to second-generation KM. According to McElroy, second-generation KM approaches are primarily demand-driven. Through JITT, employees can access training when they believe they need it to solve problems that concern them, rather than attend management-mandated workshops that may or may not provide them with timely information.
In addition, according to the KMCI knowledge life-cycle model that McElroy presents, high-quality knowledge evolves over time through dialogue within communities of practitioners who are committed to understanding what works best. Technological fixes, such as the one described above, are not a substitute for nurturing the essential social processes that contribute to developing new knowledge — they are an adjunct. It is this idea that McElroy tries to impress upon advocates of first-generation KM, who portray computer-based fixes as a main feature of KM rather than as a tool for facilitating it.
Knowledge-Friendly Policies In its essence, The New Knowledge Management espouses the perspective that managers cannot directly manage many critical organizational processes, such as knowledge creation, but they can influence them by judiciously altering certain factors. For example, because workers tend to congregate around coffee pots, the company has installed white boards and markers in those areas to assist people in capturing the knowledge that emerges through informal conversations. In addition, because studies at Xerox revealed that people also tend to engage in conversations in stairways, the company facilitated this process by widening those areas so coworkers can remain on the stairs and chat while others still have room to pass by.
PSM helps managers do a baseline diagnostic assessment of the effectiveness of current knowledge-processing systems and then alter policies and processes to yield greater innovation in how knowledge is created.
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The importance of this naturalistic view of husbanding organizational processes, as opposed to managing them, cannot be overstated. The simplistic industrial engineering notions of Fredrick W. Today, managers are killing organizations by sacrificing innovation to the god of efficiency. Does McElroy find the ultimate answer for achieving high organizational performance?
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The New Knowledge Management
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