Rome: A New Planning Strategy (Spon Research)

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Nevertheless, in Roman Egypt all the essential components of the much later steam engine were first assembled by the Greek Mathematician and Engineer Hero :. With the crank and connecting rod system, all elements for constructing a steam engine invented in — Hero 's aeolipile generating steam power , the cylinder and piston in metal force pumps , non-return valves in water pumps , gearing in water mills and clocks — were known in Roman times.

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However, the aeolipile was a reaction engine , inefficient as a stationary engine. The first useful steam engine did not use steam pressure at all, but followed up a scientific advance in understanding air pressure. Roman technology was largely based on a system of crafts, although the term engineering is used today to describe the technical feats of the Romans.

The Greek words used were mechanic or machine-maker or even mathematician which had a much wider meaning than now. There were a large number of engineers employed by the army. The most famous engineer of this period was the Greek Apollodorus of Damascus. Normally each trade , each group of artisans —stonemasons, glass blowers, surveyors, etc. Writers such as Vitruvius , Pliny the Elder and Frontinus published widely on many different technologies, and there was a corpus of manuals on basic mathematics and science such as the many books by Archimedes , Ctesibius , Heron a.

Hero of Alexandria , Euclid and so on. Not all of the manuals which were available to the Romans have survived, as lost works illustrate. Much of what is known of Roman technology comes indirectly from archaeology and from the third-hand accounts of Latin texts copied from Arabic texts, which were in turn copied from the Greek texts of scholars such as Hero of Alexandria or contemporary travellers who had observed Roman technologies in action. Writers like Pliny the Elder and Strabo had enough intellectual curiosity to make note of the inventions they saw during their travels, although their typically brief descriptions often arouse discussion as to their precise meaning.

On the other hand, Pliny is perfectly clear when describing gold mining , his text in book XXXIII having been confirmed by archaeology and field-work at such sites as Las Medulas and Dolaucothi. The Romans made extensive use of aqueducts, dams, bridges, and amphitheatres. They were also responsible for many innovations to roads, sanitation, and construction in general. Roman architecture, in general, was greatly influenced by the Greeks and Etruscans. Many of the columns and arches seen in Roman architecture were adopted from the Greek and Etruscan civilizations present in Italy.

In 20s BC the architect Vitruvius described a low-water-content method for mixing concrete. The Romans found out that insulated glazing or "double glazing" improved greatly on keeping buildings warm, and this technique was used in the construction of public baths. Another truly original process which was born in the empire was the practice of glassblowing , which started in Syria and spread in about one generation in the empire. There were many types of presses to press olives.

In the 1st century AD, Pliny the Elder reported the invention and subsequent general use of the new and more compact screw presses. However, the screw press was almost certainly not a Roman invention. It was first described by the Greek mathematician and engineer, Hero of Alexandria , but may have already been in use when he mentioned it in his Mechanica III. The Romans primarily built roads for their military. Their economic importance was probably also significant, although wagon traffic was often banned from the roads to preserve their military value. Way stations providing refreshments were maintained by the government at regular intervals along the roads.

A separate system of changing stations for official and private couriers was also maintained. The roads were constructed by digging a pit along the length of the intended course, often to bedrock. The pit was first filled with rocks, gravel or sand and then a layer of concrete.

Finally, they were paved with polygonal rock slabs. Roman roads are considered the most advanced roads built until the early 19th century. Bridges were constructed over waterways. The roads were resistant to floods and other environmental hazards. After the fall of the Roman Empire the roads were still usable and used for more than years.

Most Roman cities were shaped like a square. There were 4 main roads leading to the center of the city, or forum. They formed a cross shape, and each point on the edge of the cross was a gateway into the city. Connecting to these main roads were smaller roads, the streets where people lived.

The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to supply water. The city of Rome itself was supplied by eleven aqueducts made of limestone that provided the city with over 1 million cubic metres of water each day, sufficient for 3. Water inside the aqueducts depended entirely on gravity. The raised stone channels in which the water travelled were slightly slanted. The water was carried directly from mountain springs. After it had gone through the aqueduct, the water was collected in tanks and fed through pipes to fountains, toilets, etc.

Roman aqueducts were built to remarkably fine tolerances, and to a technological standard that was not to be equalled until modern times. Powered entirely by gravity , they transported very large amounts of water very efficiently. Sometimes, where depressions deeper than 50 metres had to be crossed, inverted siphons were used to force water uphill. Roman bridges were among the first large and lasting bridges built.

The biggest Roman bridge was Trajan's bridge over the lower Danube, constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus , which remained for over a millennium the longest bridge to have been built both in terms of overall and span length. An example of temporary military bridge construction is the two Caesar's Rhine bridges. They also built many dams for water collection, such as the Subiaco Dams , two of which fed Anio Novus , one of the largest aqueducts of Rome.

They built 72 dams in just one country, Spain and many more are known across the Empire, some of which are still in use.


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At one site, Montefurado in Galicia , they appear to have built a dam across the river Sil to expose alluvial gold deposits in the bed of the river. The site is near the spectacular Roman gold mine of Las Medulas. Several earthen dams are known from Britain , including a well-preserved example from Roman Lanchester, Longovicium , where it may have been used in industrial-scale smithing or smelting , judging by the piles of slag found at this site in northern England.


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Tanks for holding water are also common along aqueduct systems, and numerous examples are known from just one site, the gold mines at Dolaucothi in west Wales. Masonry dams were common in North Africa for providing a reliable water supply from the wadis behind many settlements. The Romans also made great use of aqueducts in their extensive mining operations across the empire, some sites such as Las Medulas in north-west Spain having at least 7 major channels entering the minehead.

Other sites such as Dolaucothi in south Wales was fed by at least 5 leats , all leading to reservoirs and tanks or cisterns high above the present opencast.

The water was used for hydraulic mining , where streams or waves of water are released onto the hillside, first to reveal any gold-bearing ore, and then to work the ore itself. Rock debris could be sluiced away by hushing , and the water also used to douse fires created to break down the hard rock and veins, a method known as fire-setting. Alluvial gold deposits could be worked and the gold extracted without needing to crush the ore. Washing tables were fitted below the tanks to collect the gold-dust and any nuggets present.

Vein gold needed crushing, and they probably used crushing or stamp mills worked by water-wheels to comminute the hard ore before washing. Large quantities of water were also needed in deep mining to remove waste debris and power primitive machines, as well as for washing the crushed ore.

Pliny the Elder provides a detailed description of gold mining in book xxxiii of his Naturalis Historia , most of which has been confirmed by archaeology. That they used water mills on a large scale elsewhere is attested by the flour mills at Barbegal in southern France , and on the Janiculum in Rome.

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The Romans did not invent plumbing or toilets, but instead borrowed their waste disposal system from their neighbors, particularly the Minoans. The baths contained three main facilities for bathing. After undressing in the apodyterium or changing room, Romans would proceed to the tepidarium or warm room. In the moderate dry heat of the tepidarium, some performed warm-up exercises and stretched while others oiled themselves or had slaves oil them.

The caldarium, unlike the tepidarium, was extremely humid and hot. Temperatures in the caldarium could reach 40 degrees Celsius degrees Fahrenheit. Many contained steam baths and a cold-water fountain known as the labrum. The last room was the frigidarium or cold room, which offered a cold bath for cooling off after the caldarium. The Romans also had flush toilets. The Roman military technology ranged from personal equipment and armament to deadly siege engines.

They inherited almost all ancient weapons. While heavy, intricate armour was not uncommon cataphracts , the Romans perfected a relatively light, full torso armour made of segmented plates lorica segmentata. This segmented armour provided good protection for vital areas, but did not cover as much of the body as lorica hamata or chainmail. The lorica segmentata provided better protection, but the plate bands were expensive and difficult to produce and difficult to repair in the field. Overall, chainmail was cheaper, easier to produce, and simpler to maintain, was one-size fits all, and was more comfortable to wear — thus, it remained the primary form of armour even when lorica segmentata was in use.

The Roman cavalry saddle had four horns [1] and was believed to have been copied from Celtic peoples. Roman siege engines such as ballistas , scorpions and onagers were not unique. But the Romans were probably the first people to put ballistas on carts for better mobility on campaigns.

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On the battlefield, it is thought that they were used to pick off enemy leaders. In addition to innovations in land warfare, the Romans also developed the Corvus boarding device a movable bridge that could attach itself to an enemy ship and allow the Romans to board the enemy vessel. Developed during the First Punic War it allowed them to apply their experience in land warfare on the seas.

Rome was responsible for the innovation of other vital technology in addition to cataphracts, siege engines, and the Corvus. In summary, Rome contributed numerous advances in technology to the Ancient World. However, it is also viewed that "the ancient world under the domination of Rome [in fact] reached a kind of climax in the technological field [as] many technologies had advanced as far as possible with the equipment then available".

Ideas that had already been invented or designed: like the pontoon bridge, aqueduct, and military surgery, were constructed or utilized to perfection by Roman innovators. It's the innovation of technology that contributed to Rome's military success. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Technological history of the Roman military.

This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: List of Roman watermills. Further information: Roman architecture , Roman engineering , and Roman military engineering. Main article: Roman road. Further information: Roman bridge. Main article: Aqueduct bridge.

Further information: Roman aqueduct. Main article: Roman bridge. See also: List of Roman bridges. Main article: List of Roman dams and reservoirs. Further information: Roman metallurgy. Further information: Thermae. Further information: Roman military engineering.

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This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Wrigley 'The Quest for the Industrial Revolution' Proceedings of the British Academy , — available free online, enter ' lecture' in search at "Archived copy".

Archived from the original on Retrieved Macdonald Educational Ltd. Lavan, E. Technology and Culture in Greek and Roman Antiquity. Cambridge, U. The History Channel. Realm of History. Technology in the Ancient World.

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Thudscave PDF. Archontidou Un atelier de preparation de l'alun a partir de l'alunite dans l'isle de Lesbos in L'alun de Mediterranee ed P. Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the distributions of the impact on value creation of each ICA and its estimated investment respectively, calculated separately by each interviewee.

Hereafter we will analyze the most controversial ICAs identified in terms of standard deviation and discuss the possible causes of the misalignments. EM is less enthusiastic but also convinced of the importance of investing in D, and all the other shareholders agree on the convenience of investing in D. Interestingly, the scientific supervisor perceives a much lower impact on both value creation of Process and expected investment in it, while the ratio is kept positive. This result is consistent with the interviewee's character and with his creative approach to work, which is less constrained and rigorous compared to how processes are structured within OMT.

Figure 2. Boxplots ofthe distribution ofweights regarding the impact on value creation of each ICA, calculated by interviewee. Figure 3. Boxplots ofthe distribution ofweights regarding the estimated investment in each ICA, calculated by interviewee Interviewee. Table 2. The results are consistent with the former's role, which understandably gives special consideration to the scientific aspects of the initiative.

On the other hand, the lat-ter's point of view originates from a role-affected approach which is much more oriented to the benefits deriving from an efficient process and good external relationships. The alignment of the other stakeholders returns a mean value that is probably representative of a fair assessment of B's impact on value creation. The CUS pointedly underestimated the expected investment in B compared to the internal stakeholders, who are more reasonably aligned their standard deviation was 0.

The result should be an issue to discuss for the CEO and the SS, who were probably personally involved with regard to the expected investment in B and should engage in communicating more clearly with the external stakeholders just how costly it is - and was - to gain OMT's intellectual property and technology. Interestingly, the CEO has a very low perception of H's impact on value creation, much lower than every other stakeholder, which, in any case, is compensated by a similarly low evaluation of the expected investment.

This result may alert the internal shareholders: the customer has a distorted idea of the necessary costs to maintain and create relation- ships between OMT and its customers. Table 3. Table 4. Despite this result being understandable, it may also suggest that a more effective communication strategy should be implemented in order to make the customers aware of the investments being made in them. As a measure of coherence among the interviewees we constructed Table 6 , which shows, for each ICA, whether or not an interviewee agrees with the recommendation given in the previous section. This article presented an analysis of the ICAs within a University Spin-Off, based on interviews submitted to five key figures the CEO, the scientific supervisor, a shareholder, an employee and a long-term customer.

The analysis is aimed both at identifying those ICAs in which future investments should be made, and at identifying possible misalignments among the perceptions of the organization's stakeholders with respect to the ICAs' importance in creating value and to the investments needed to achieve value through them. The two results seem to lead to the conclusion that the customer does not perceive the relevant costs associated with the two ICAs; this can be caused by a lack of a visible return on investment - the analyzed company invests a lot in them, but the customer is unable to perceive how big the investment actually is - or by some communication problems that can be solved by management.

Table 5. Table 6. Representation of a dummy variable that equals 1 if the interviewee agrees with the recommendation, and 0 otherwise; between. The implementation of the framework of analysis allowed the company to identify ICAs that may improve its future performance, to measure the alignment of its stakeholders on their perceptions regarding ICAs and to highlight critical issues that need to be solved in order to improve the relationships with its customers.

The framework was found to be effective and simple to implement in a University Spin-Off, providing useful information that may have an impact both on strategic and tactical planning, and on human resource management, as well as on customer relationship management. An individual-level assessment of the relationship between spin-off activities and research performance in universities. R and D Management, 42 3 , p. KM versus enterprise 2. IC valuation and measurement: classifying the state of the art.

Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5 2 , Accounting for intellectual capital: on the elusive path from theory to practice. Knowledge and Process Management, 12 3 , Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17 1 , International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 5 42 , Prominent determinants of consumer-based brand equity.

International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 5 25 , Journal of Technology Transfer, 31 1 , Measuring the value of intellectual capital. Ivey Business Journal, 65 5 , Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36 2 , Spin-off process and the development of academic entrepreneur's social capital. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 8 1 , BRAY, M. University revenues from technology transfer: licensing fees vs. Journal of Business Venturing, 15 5 , Formulas of revised MRP.

International Journal of Engineering Business Management 5 10 , Effects of online brand communities on brand equity in luxury fashion industry. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 5 32 , From initial idea to unique advantage: The entrepreneurial challenge of constructing a resource base. Academy of Management Executive, 15 1 , Knowledge and Process Management, 20 3 , Jena Economics Research Paper, 29, Business incubation in Chile: Development, financing and financial services. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 7 2 , CHEN, J.

Measuring intellectual capital: a new model and empirical study. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5 1 , The contribution of university research to the growth of academic start-ups: an empirical analysis. Journal of Technology Transfer, 35 1 , Factors affecting the practices of external problem solvers in broadcast search. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 8 2 , Knowledge-based inter-organizational collaborations.

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Research Policy, 33 4 , Spinoff enterprises. How French academics create hi-tech companies: The conditions for success and failure. Science and Public Policy, 24 1 , Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23 2 , Determinants and consequences of university spinoff activity: A conceptual framework.

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