Beyond Individual Differences: Organizing Processes, Information Overload, and Classroom Learning

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The rapid development of executive function in the early years makes the use of such interventions optimal during that period, although no age is too late e. Some studies have shown enhancement of such capabilities with computer games e. The latter often include specific teaching approaches such as guiding impulsive children to self-monitor their behavior by talking to themselves four different interventions of this sort were effective; see Reid et al.

As suggested by Gilliam , educators are likely to benefit from consultation with early mental health experts to best understand how to work with children in need of specialized support in their classrooms. Child mental health consultants can provide educators with guidance on classroom management and instructional practices for all children as well as individualized consultation for particular children based on classroom observations, and offer teachers continuing support as they incorporate these practices see Amini Virmani et al. Unfortunately, as noted 15 years ago in the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine report From Neurons to Neighborhoods , most communities lack expertise in child mental health services and consultation, and no well-developed national infrastructure exists for training developmentally oriented clinicians in providing these services see also Osofsky and Lieberman, More broadly, the importance of socioemotional health to early learning calls for the involvement of multiple service systems that affect young children and their families in meeting the special needs of young children facing mental health challenges Osofsky and Lieberman, Thus, beyond incorporating developmental knowledge in this area into educator preparation, it is important to also do so across sectors and settings, for professionals in pediatric practice, the child welfare system, early intervention, special education, childcare and after-school care, and programs for children with special needs.

This would help ensure that children experiencing mental health challenges would be identified and provided with appropriate services that would be aligned across different programs with which these children come in contact. Such cross-sector preparation of professionals concerned with young children could even be conducted collaboratively across professional communities. Such a cross-sector approach is especially important given that these different professional sectors have distinctly different professional reference groups and funding streams that tend to make their efforts insular rather than collaborative, even though the same child is the focus of their attention.

An additional benefit of cross-sector collaborative training in the socioemotional needs of young children is that it would enable professionals to coordinate assistance across multiple generations. The connections between the well-being of an adult and the well-being of a child who has an emotional attachment to that adult make it important to coordinate supportive services to parents and children within the family IOM and NRC, Similarly, the benefits demonstrated by intervention programs aimed at supporting the developmental health and learning of young children by providing broader family support should spur efforts to consider how children can be assisted through a two-generational approach.

Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn, Similar considerations apply to the associations between the well-being of children and the emotional health of those who care for and educate them outside the home. The use of technology in educational settings can take two major forms, both of which have implications for the competencies needed by professionals. In terms of professional competency, educators must have proficiency in technology as a set of tools that can enhance pedagogy, knowledge of how and when children learn through what kinds of technology and the ability to integrate that knowledge into their pedagogy and lessons, and proficiency in teaching children how to use technology and acquire digital literacy skills.

The second entails the use of technology to facilitate other aspects of professional practice, such as assessment of children, creation and management of the learning environment, documentation, information sharing, and communication with families and with other practitioners. This section focuses primarily on the first form of technology use: what knowledge teachers need to have about how children interact with and learn through technology and what skills they need to put that knowledge into practice in the classroom. While there is still much to learn, the science of how children relate to new media has expanded through research over the past decade that offers insights into how, and at what age, young children may develop cognitive skills from using different types of new technology, as well as when profes-.

According to a recent national survey of 1, American families, more than 8 in 10 children ages use digital media every week and two-thirds have tablets or e-readers. Developmental scientists long have wondered how babies make sense of the moving image. Some research has shown that until about 18 months of age, infants tend to reach out to touch or grasp an image whether a picture or a video instead of pointing to it, as they do after 18 months DeLoache et al. In other words, it appears that infants eventually progress to a stage of cognitive development in which they comprehend that an image is a symbol that represents something instead of being the thing itself.

A separate body of research has focused on gleaning evidence that infants and toddlers can learn from what they see on a video screen, and at what age. This deficit has been seen in children younger than 12 months old and up through age 3. It takes many forms and has been shown in some experiments to be overcome by repetition; that is, if a child sees something on video multiple times, the child can learn from it Barr and Hayne, ; Barr et al.

A few studies in the mids showed associations between television viewing in early childhood and poor cognitive outcomes Christakis et al. In these cases and many others, however, while researchers typically controlled for socioeconomic status of the parents, they did not include information on what types of shows children were watching. More recent studies have rectified this omission by examining the content of the viewing in addition to the quantity. One such study found links between infants regularly watching television shows made for.

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Another found associations between attention problems and television viewing for children who watched violent programming, but not educational shows, before age 3 Zimmerman and Christakis, More insight comes from studies on video specifically designed to be educational for children.

Studies using randomized controlled trials yielded evidence showing that children learned new vocabulary words and skills such as problem solving and self-regulation after watching videos with an intentional pedagogical approach or curriculum Singer and Singer, Longitudinal studies have shown a link between viewing Sesame Street before kindergarten and school readiness, as well as positive outcomes in high school Anderson et al. It is important to emphasize that any benefits of technology will depend on the use of high-quality educational technology implemented well see, e.

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Limited research has examined how different technologies can be used effectively with students at different ages for different subjects, how to incorporate digital content into curricula, and how best to employ technology to enable early skill development. Although these research questions warrant further exploration, available research provides some guidance on how technology can contribute to effective early childhood settings Clements and Sarama, ; Sarama and Clements, Appropriate implementation of high-quality educational technology can help teaching and learning be more effective, efficient, and motivating Bereiter and Scardamalia, ; Bus and Kegel, ; Clements and Sarama, , ; Clements et al.

High-quality educational technology, implemented well in meaningful con-. These benefits extend across diverse populations and may be especially important for children with special needs e. In some cases, the use of educational technology has been shown to increase social interactions, especially those centered around subject-matter content.

These social interactions in turn generate increased use of language Clements and Sarama, Technology-assisted instruction also can help build prereading and reading skills e. Educational technology also can support the teaching and learning of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics Clements and Sarama, ; NMP, ; NRC, ; Sarama and Clements, There can also be collateral benefits for digital literacy: the integration of an interactive literacy program into curriculum increases computer skills, computer self-efficacy, and enjoyment of computers Ross et al.

Most recently, debates about the value of video in early childhood have centered on whether any positive impact is evident when educational videos are watched before the age of 24 months. Thus far the few studies addressing this question have focused on word learning, and their results are mixed: two showed that children younger than 24 months of age cannot learn words from videos even when the videos are explicitly designed to teach them those words; another two showed that children just a few months shy of 24 months are, in fact, able to learn the words DeLoache et al.

With the research still nascent and unsettled, parents and early educators continue to receive mixed messages about the value of so-called baby videos. Another study showed that 2-year-olds using touch screens learn more from the on-screen content than those who only watch, as long as they are asked to touch specific areas of the screen that relate to the task they are learning Choi and.

Kirkorian, A similar study showed that the same caveat applies to word learning as well Kirkorian et al. An only slightly more extensive line of research has emerged on the impact of interactive technologies for children aged For example, a study of the Building Blocks Pre-K math curriculum examined, among other questions, whether software integrated into a suite of curricular activities could have a positive impact on student learning.

Students in classrooms using the software scored higher than children in classrooms that employed the curriculum without the software Sarama and Clements, see also, Clements and Sarama, On the literacy front, a series of e-book studies in Israel with 40 kindergarteners and 50 first-graders showed that digital text with embedded questions and audio dictionaries definitions spoken aloud when a child clicks on a word can lead to improvements in phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and word-reading skills Korat, Good results are seen when educators use the products intentionally and are given support in integrating them into their classroom practices.

One example comes from research on the television show The Adventures of SuperWhy , which is broadcast regularly on PBS and was also designed to be part of a classroom literacy curriculum for children aged In an experiment with the curriculum version, children watched episodes twice per week that were linked to teacher-led whole-classroom activities, small-group activities, online games, and individual exploration. Teachers received professional development and training in how to integrate these activities throughout the 10 weeks. With funding from the U.

Department of Education, researchers conducted a randomized controlled trial of low-income children in 80 preschools to determine the impact of the media-enriched literacy curricula. They found that children outscored the control group on measures of letter recognition, letter sounds, print concepts, and knowing the letters of their names Penuel.

The most important feature of any high-quality educational environment is a knowledgeable and responsive adult Darling-Hammond, ; Ferguson, ; NRC, b; Watson, , and this is no less true for technology as part of the learning environment. As research continues to examine what kinds of tools, media, and curriculum integration may be best for young children at which ages, one area of consensus is already forming: children consistently show greater signs of learning if they watch media with an adult who engages them in the content or helps them connect the ideas on screen to their world.

Just as they do with books, adults can spark conversations about the subject matter of a video or a game by using dialogic questioning and other ways to prompt deeper engagement. In short, computers and other technology are used well in classrooms where educators use effective instructional strategies. Moreover, there is evidence that if educators receive more support in the use of computers, their students benefit, even more than if the support is targeted at students Fuller, As the science of how children are affected by and in what ways they can learn from various forms of media and technology emerges, research is starting to focus on a corollary question: What skills and knowledge do young children need to acquire about how to use technology and media—that is, what does digital literacy or technological fluency look like for young children?

There are instances of children as young as 5 learning how to produce multimedia projects, and some case studies suggest that such projects could prompt better reading comprehension Hobbs and Moore, Given the role these tools are already playing in schools and workplaces, more scientific research is needed on how and when young children develop skills in and knowledge about technology and media. Educators working with older students— years old—have clearer expectations for the use of technology than their counterparts working with children under age 5.

These standards call for students to be able to demonstrate the following with respect to using technology: research and information fluency; critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making; creativity and innovation; and communication and collaboration ISTE, a, At one count, nearly all 50 states had adopted or used part of the ISTE student standards.

Another indicator of technology expectations for educators comes in the Common Core State Standards. Consider, for example, the kindergarten standard CCSS. To be able to help children use digital tools for writing, educators themselves need a high level of familiarity with those tools and developmentally appropriate methods for introducing them to young children who are still learning how to write with analog tools such as pens and pencils.

Expectations for the use of technology are very different in settings outside of elementary schools. In prekindergarten and childcare settings, there is no widely adopted set of standards for using technology with these young children, nor are there common standards for what the children should know and be able to do regarding technology. Some states do not mention technology in their early learning guidelines at all Daugherty et al. The intent was to provide guidance to teachers in settings across the birth through 8 age spectrum. Zero to Three has also developed guidelines specifically for screen use for children under 3 Lerner and Barr, Digital media—whether television, video, or games on interactive tablets—are a regular presence in the lives of young children.

Educators across professional roles and age ranges are expected to have competency in the use of technology for learning. This competency includes knowing how children learn through technology and having the ability to integrate that knowledge into practices that support development and learning.

These professionals need better support in the use of technology and more opportunities to learn how to use technology appropriately, effectively, and to its fullest potential to foster early learning for children from birth through age 8. In addition to what is known about supporting healthy development among children, writ large, the current research base points to a set of essential practices for educators in early care and education settings and elementary schools with respect to the specific language-learning needs of the multilingual population.

Comprehensive early screening of the key skills and competencies related to literacy development is essential to prevent risk and vulnerabilities from becoming difficulties, given what is known about the relationships between early language and literacy skills and later academic achievement. The current research base highlights features of effective early assessment practices with multilingual learners, which together make for a comprehensive approach:. More information can be found at www.

Research on effective instructional practices with young multilingual learners highlights the promise and importance of several strategies and approaches that, together, prepare multilingual learners for the oral and written language they will encounter in the later grades:. In addition to general principles that support all learners such as small class sizes that allow for tailored individual learning experiences, team teaching with collaborative planning and reflection, and positive relationships between educators and students as well as with their families , Clements and Sarama have summarized the research on instructional approaches that are beneficial for the mathematics learning of dual language learners:.

Researchers have developed specific instructional strategies or components of instructional strategies for the acquisition and generalization of key skills by young children with or at risk for disabilities Godfrey et al. These approaches vary along several dimensions, including what is taught, when teaching occurs, the spacing of teaching trials, and the type of instructional procedure that is used.

An issue with these strategies is how they can be implemented during naturally occurring activities and routines so that the instruction leads not only to the acquisition of new skills but also to higher levels of engagement in ongoing activities and routines for children with disabilities. Although this type of embedded instruction is a recommended practice in early childhood special education Wolery, and early childhood education NAEYC, , evidence indicates that it frequently is not used in early childhood settings.

More Inclusion for More Students

An observational study in primary-grade classrooms found that for some children, across multiple academic and social activities, there were no instructional trials focused on their learning objectives Schuster et al. For some students math skills may be delayed, but if formally classified as learning disabled they may be miseducated and mislabeled.

In the earliest years, such labeling will probably do more harm than good. Instead, high-quality instruction preventive education should be provided to all students. Foundational abilities in subitizing, counting and counting strategies, simple arithmetic, and magnitude comparison are important. In later years, competencies in arithmetic combinations, place value, and word problem solving should also be ensured Dowker, Other students may have a true math learning disability and be in need of specialized instruction.

An example of the value of different kinds of additional instruction comes from a study showing that in the primary years, students with a math learning disability alone or in combination with a reading learning disability performed worse than normally developing students on timed tests but just as well on untimed tests. Students with a math learning disability alone may simply need extra time studying and extra time to complete calculation tasks. Using a calculator and other computational aids can enable these students to concentrate on developing their problem-solving skills.

Students with both mathematics and reading learning disabilities may need more systematic remedial intervention that is aimed at problem conceptualization, the development of effective computational strategies, and strategies for efficient fact retrieval Jordan and Montani, Further, specific mathematical competencies may have different relationships to reading learning disabilities. In one study, children with dyslexia experienced difficulty with both arithmetic fact fluency and operations. In addition, however, the findings distinguished between these two areas, as arithmetic fact fluency appeared to be affected by domain-general competencies, whereas operations appeared to be related to specific competencies in literacy Vukovic et al.

Historically, many have called for Direct Instruction in skills for students with math learning disabilities. Research also supports other approaches that share characteristics with Direct Instruction—such as explicit, systematic instruction—but include more student problem solving and student-generated talk rather than highly educator-directed lessons with specific instructions and demonstrations of procedures.

For example, educators may not only explain and demonstrate specific strategies, but also encourage students to think aloud. Further, instruction is not limited to memorization of simple skills but includes computation and solving word problems, including those that apply mathematics to novel situations. Using visual representations may make such explicit instruction even more effective. Further, educators need to ensure that students are acquiring all foundational concepts and skills necessary to learning mathematics at their grade level NMP, Such interventions should be used in addition to other mathematics instruction.

Clements and Sarama have summarized the research on instructional approaches that help students at risk of experiencing problems with learning mathematics:. There are many gaps in the availability of resources to help students with special needs. For example, there is no widely used measure with which to identify specific learning difficulties or disabilities in mathemat-. Finally, it may be most important, and have the most potential to prevent most learning difficulties, if high-quality early and elementary childhood mathematics education is provided for all students. Gersten and colleagues offer specific guidelines to this end.

Care and education professionals need skills in communicating, working collaboratively, and developing partnerships with families. They have an important role in preparing families to engage in behaviors and activities that enhance development and early learning, and to maintain continuity and consistency across home and out-of-home settings and learning environments for young children. For example, parents can. Following are two examples of the role of family partnerships in supporting child development and early learning. The principles illustrated by these examples also can be applied generally across different domains.

Strong partnerships between families and care and education professionals are key to promoting language-rich home environments for the youngest children. Because the cultural constructs for the families of multilingual children are in many cases different from the long-held cultural norms of U. Educators also need to remind families that when they talk and interact with their children, their children learn.

Educators should encourage families to talk, read, and play in the language s with which they feel the greatest comfort and facility. Families of emerging bilingual or multilingual children may have concerns that children will not learn English if they continue to speak in another language or languages at home. Care and education professionals are well positioned to share with families the benefits of bilingualism or multilingualism, as well as to celebrate the linguistic diversity in their classrooms with the children themselves Bialystok, , The relationship between care and education professionals and families is not always easily negotiated, particularly across ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic differences.

Both racism and classism can act as barriers to family and parent engagement in schools. This is also an opportunity for educators to discuss race with their students in order to prepare them for race-related issues they may encounter. However, a study found that many teachers are unaware of institutional racism and how it affects parents, families, and students Bernhard et al. Similarly, working-class and middle-class families may perceive family engagement and parent involvement in schools differently; working-class families may not recognize the connection between home and school which may lead to less parent involvement Lareau, ; Lareau and Horvat, A study also found that working-class and low-income parents may be less involved due to feelings of insecurity in their academic skills or because of their own negative experiences they may have had in school Lareau, ; Lawrence-Lightfoot, The care and education workforce needs to be prepared to recognize and address these barriers to family engagement Ambe, ; Bloch and Swadener, ; Strizek et al.

Power dynamics between parents and educators can also be a barrier to effective family engagement in schools. Some parents may feel intimidated upon entering the classroom, as they may reflect back on their own childhood school experiences, which may have been negative Lawrence-Lightfoot, In order to eliminate the uneven dynamic, the educator has the responsibility to recognize and address any power issues in order to help parents feel comfortable communicating about the child Doucet and Tudge, ; Lawrence-Lightfoot, While early learning standards provide a roadmap for what young children should know and be able to do, early care and education professionals, including practitioners and leaders, also need the competencies to understand how individual and groups of children are learning and developing across the birth through age 8 continuum.

In the course of their work, early. Are mainstreamed children with special education classifications making the anticipated progress? What competencies do children possess as they enter kindergarten? Are children in a program for infants and toddlers developing significantly better than similar children who are not receiving services? Care and education professionals and policy leaders need information in order to modify instruction, support curriculum reform, fund new and existing programs, and develop regulations that will support student learning.

Therefore, child assessments serve a variety of purposes Chittenden and Jones, Sometimes the term suggests a more diagnostic function, for example, to identify children with special needs. Across all levels of education systems, assessments can be used to inform continuous quality improvement Chittenden, ; Chittenden and Jones, The intended purpose of assessment should determine its content; the methods used to collect information; and the nature of the possible uses—and consequences—for individual students, teachers, schools, or programs.

It is confusion of purpose that often leads to misuse of tests and other instruments in early childhood.

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Instruments designed for one purpose, such as identification, may be totally inappropriate for another, such as measuring the success of a program. Assessments can inform teaching and program improvement and make a crucial contribution to better outcomes for children, but only if they are selected appropriately, matched to their purpose, well designed, implemented effectively in the context of systematic planning, and interpreted and used appropriately. Otherwise, assessment of children and programs can result in negative consequences for both.

The potential value of assessments will therefore only be realized if fundamental attention is paid to their purpose NRC, Realizing the potential value of assessment also requires attention to the design of the larger systems in which assessments are used. Although this section focuses on the ability of care and education professionals to conduct child assessments, it is important to emphasize that such child assessment should not occur in isolation but rather as a component of a comprehensive assessment system, as described in Box NRC, Assessments: Multiple approaches to documenting child development and learning and reviewing program quality that are of high quality and connect to one another in well-defined ways, from which strategic selection can be made depending on specific purposes.

Reporting: Maintenance of an integrated database of assessment instruments and results with appropriate safeguards of confidentiality that is accessible to potential users, that provides information about how the instruments and scores relate to standards, and that can generate reports for varied audiences and purposes. Professional development: Ongoing opportunities provided to those at all levels policy makers, program directors, assessment administrators, practitioners to understand the standards and the assessments and to learn to use the data and data reports with integrity for their appropriate purposes.

Opportunity to learn: Procedures to assess whether the environments in which children are spending time offer high-quality support for development and learning, as well as safety, enjoyment, and affectively positive relationships, and to direct support to those that fall short. Inclusion: Methods and procedures for ensuring that all children served by the program will be assessed fairly, regardless of their language, culture, or disabilities, and with tools that provide useful information for fostering their development and learning.

Resources: The assurance that the financial resources needed to ensure the development and implementation of the system components will be available. Monitoring and evaluation: Continuous monitoring of the system itself to ensure that it is operating effectively and that all elements are working together to serve the interests of the children.

This entire infrastructure must be in place to create and sustain an assessment subsystem within a larger system of early childhood care and education. Stiggins , , coined the term assessment literacy to describe the ability of care and education professionals to understand how to. The discussion in this section focuses on the principles of assessment and some of the tools and approaches that care and education professionals should be familiar with and able to use as they investigate questions about the progress of children and programs. Key to applying these principles using the assessment tools described in the next section is for professionals to be trained not only in how to administer assessments but also in how to interpret their results and apply that information to make changes in instructional practices and learning environments Kauerz and Coffman, ; Tout et al.

In addition, data collection, interpretation, and sharing in ongoing practice need to be supported through structured and facilitated means to ensure the quality of the data analysis, interpretation, and use. Leaders in educational settings as. In many settings, accountability requirements increasingly demand unprecedented amounts of data gathering.

This demand may be having unintended consequences in detracting from meaningful interpretation and use of assessment data. A shift may be required to decrease the volume of data collection and reorient the current focus on reporting and compliance in favor of devoting more time, support, and resources to data analysis, interpretation, and use Lesaux and Marietta, ; Lesaux et al.

There exists an array of tools that, when selected wisely and according to the purpose for which they were intended, administered appropriately, and interpreted accurately, can inform practice and policy to help create successful learning environments and achieve strong outcomes for children. The terms used in any assessment discussion e. At appropriate ages, all of these sources can be useful. Screening is the use of a brief procedure or tool to identify children who may require a more in-depth diagnostic assessment to determine whether they need more in-depth intervention services.

When such services are needed, the follow-up typically requires coordination among families, early educators, and medical or early intervention specialists NRC, Screening competencies include the knowledge and ability to help ensure that health and developmental screenings are being administered at the right stages and using appropriate, valid screening tools; skills in early identification of the potential need for further assessment and referral for developmental delays, mental health issues, and other such concerns; skills to help families find necessary resources; and skills for follow-up on the outcomes of referrals HRSA, n.

Diagnostic assessment is used to better describe an identified problem, to locate a cause, or both. A child identified by a screening assessment as possibly having delayed language development, for example, needs further assessment to determine whether an actual delay exists; whether there are other, related delays e. Research indicates that formative assessment is an effective teaching strategy Akers et al.

It helps all children learn, but helps lower-achieving children the most. They gain not only subject-matter knowledge but also cognitive competencies often already attained by higher-achieving children. Formative assessment is an important part of the cycle of understanding the levels of thinking at which students are operating, identifying the next level of thinking they should learn, and matching this to educational activities to support that learning Clements and Sarama, ; Clements et al.

Compared with assessments that are merely curriculum based, curriculum-embedded assessments have the potential to address higher-level thinking and understanding, which has the added advantage of being intrinsically more interesting to students. In addition, although there is reasonable concern that assessments can narrow curriculum and teaching, comprehensive, research-based assessment instruments often individually administered Clements et al.

Summative assessments typically are carried out at the completion of a program of learning, such as at the end of an instructional unit, to de-. Summative assessments can be used for multiple purposes. In some cases, they are used for accountability, and sometimes they are administered by educators themselves to be used for that purpose. Caring for our children, national health and safety performance standards: Guidelines for early care and early education programs. The standards for educational and psychological testing. Akers, L. Grosso, S. Atkins-Burnett, K.

Boller, J. Carta, and B. Washington, DC: U. Akerson, V. Designing a science methods course for early childhood preservice teachers. Journal of Elementary Science Education 2 Akiba, M. LeTendre, and J. Teacher quality, opportunity gap, and national achievement in 46 countries. Educational Researcher Alibali, M. Cognitive Psychology Ambe, E. Fostering multicultural appreciation in pre-service teachers through multicultural curricular transformation.

Teaching and Teacher Education 22 6 Amini Virmani, E. Masyn, R. Thompson, N. Conners-Burrow, and L. Whiteside Mansell. Early childhood mental health consultation: Promoting change in the quality of teacher—child interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal 34 2 Anderson, D. Television and very young children. American Behavioral Scientist 48 5 Huston, K. Schmitt, D. Linebarger, J. Wright, and R. Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: The recontact study.

Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 66 1 :i-viii, Appleton, K. Why teach primary science? International Journal of Science Education 21 2 Journal of Science Teacher Education 13 1 Aram, D. Joint storybook reading and joint writing interventions among low SES preschoolers: Differential contributions to early literacy.

Askew, M. Brown, V. Rhodes, D. Wiliam, and D. Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki. August, D. Executive Summary. Aukrust, V. Young children acquiring second language vocabulary in preschool group-time: Does amount, diversity, and discourse complexity of teacher talk matter? Journal of Research in Childhood Education 22 1 Aydogan, C. Plummer, S. Kang, C. Bilbrey, D. Farran, and M. An investigation of prekindergarten curricula: Influences on classroom characteristics and child engagement. Ballou, D. Sanders, and P. Controlling for student background in value-added assessment of teachers.

Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 29 1 Bangert-Drowns, R. The word processor as an instructional tool: A meta-analysis of word processing in writing instruction. Review of Educational Research 63 1 Barnett, W. Jung, D. Yarosz, J. Thomas, A. Hornbeck, R. Stechuk, and S. Educational effects of the Tools of the Mind curriculum: A randomized trial.

Epstein, A. Friedman, J. Stevenson-Boyd, and J. The state of preschool State preschool yearbook. Baroody, A. The development of basic counting, number, and arithmetic knowledge among children classified as mentally handicapped. In International review of research in mental retardation.

New York: Academic Press. The development of adaptive expertise and flexibility: The integration of conceptual and procedural knowledge. In The development of arithmetic concepts and skills constructive adaptive expertise , edited by A. Baroody and A. The developmental bases for early childhood number and operations standards. In Engaging young children in mathematics standards for early childhood mathematics education , edited by D.

Clements and J. The role of psychological research in the development of early childhood mathematics standards. Barr, R. Developmental changes in imitation from television during infancy. Child Development 70 5 Muentener, A. Garcia, M. Fujimoto, and V. The effect of repetition on imitation from television during infancy. Developmental Psychobiology 49 2 : Lauricella, E. Zach, and S. Infant and early childhood exposure to adult-directed and child-directed television programming: Relations with cognitive skills at age four.

Barton, K. Themes or motifs? Aiming for coherence through interdisciplinary outlines. The Reading Teacher 54 1 Baumert, J. Kunter, W. Blum, M. Brunner, T. Voss, A. Jordan, and Y. American Educational Research Journal 47 1 Beck, I. Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children. The Reading Teacher 55 1 Elementary School Journal 3 Beilock, S. Learning and performing math: Self-concept, self-doubt, and self-fulfilling prophesy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Bereiter, C. Can children really create knowledge?

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Bolt, D. Decker, P. Muyskens, and D. Examining the role of time and language type in reading development for English language learners. Journal of School Psychology 47 3 Bialystok, E. Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press. Acquisition of literacy in bilingual children: A framework for research. Language Learning 52 1 Biancarosa, G. Technology tools to support reading in the digital age. Future of Children 22 2 In our own popular resource, the Critical Thinking Companion , we define critical thinking as clear, rational, logical, and independent thinking.

Critical thinking involves mindful communication, problem-solving , and a freedom from bias or ego. After all, how do you teach someone to think? In , Mark D. Halx and L. They claimed that even though learning requires effort, critical thinking requires our full expenditure of intellectual capability. Their research also found that students and teachers both struggle emotionally with the aspect of personal reflection it requires.

However, the truth is that critical thinking is not something to be feared. From solving problems and exploring inquiry-based activities in class to facing the challenges of everyday life, we all need critical thinking skills. In addition to the obvious applications, consider the world our children live in now and the one they will be inheriting.

Furthermore, the openness of the Internet and our ability to create and upload our own content to social media channels has created an information overload. Having an ability to think both critically and analytically using the skills of Media Fluency and Information Fluency , therefore, are critical for us and our students. The Benefits of Critical Thinking Development. While it may not be easy, critical thinking is one of the most worthwhile things we can pursue in our classrooms. But how do we know how beneficial it really is? Forth , people need a way to accurately measure their performance and have the necessary tools to test themselves.

Fifth , people need to see that all their time and effort pays off, and that their lives will continually improve. This way other people will also be encouraged to take part in this learning journey. Perquisites that can help: Understands learning. Knows several learning techniques. Knows how to accurately identify valuable knowledge and information. Knows how to manage Life and Time. Has read BK People have difficulty learning and progressing because they are to busy processing old information over and over again.

What is Cognitive Overload?

And they are also not aware of the importance of acquiring new information, or do people have the skills to access valuable knowledge and information. This learning disability is the direct result of our dysfunctional education systems and the media. For humans, processing information and thinking is good and natural, but not learning new information is really bad and extremely unnatural.

And it's not just bad for you, it's bad for everyone.

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If you keep pretending to know things , you will never progress or overcome your ignorance, the same ignorance that you have no idea even exists because you have been neglecting the responsibility of learning. Capacity is the power to learn or retain knowledge ; in law , the ability to understand the facts and significance of your behavior. Capability to perform or produce. The maximum production possible.

The amount that can be contained. Adults will only learn what they feel they need to learn. But it's a bad idea to rely on your feelings when it comes to learning. End of History illusion is a psychological illusion in which individuals of all ages believe that they have experienced significant personal growth and changes in tastes up to the present moment, but will not substantially grow or mature in the future.

Despite recognizing that their perceptions have evolved, individuals predict that their perceptions will remain roughly the same in the future. The illusion is based on the fact that at any given developmental stage, an individual can observe a relatively low level of maturity in previous stages. The phenomenon affects teenagers, middle-aged individuals, and seniors. In general, people tend to see significant changes in hindsight, but fail to predict that these changes will continue. For example, a year-old's impression of how great a change they will undergo in the next ten years will not be as extreme as a year-old's recollection of the changes they underwent between the ages of 20 and The same phenomenon is true for people of any age.

The reason for the illusion has not been studied, although researchers speculate that a resistance or fear of change may be causal. Adults learn by doing. Active participation is especially important to adult learners in comparison to children. But we should be teaching children the same way since we all ready know this. Adult learning is problem-based and these problems must be realistic.

Adult learners like finding solutions to problems. Adult learning is affected by the experience each adult brings. Adults learn best informally. Adults learn what they feel they need to know whereas children learn from a curriculum, which is stupid, children should have the right to learn what they need to know and want to know, within reason of course.

Children want guidance. Adults want information that will help them improve their situation or that of their children. Now you're getting it.

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You're still a child. People don't seek knowledge and skills they don't use, or rarely use. If you rarely use a particular knowledge and or skill, then people will have no incentive to learn something new. But if you guaranteed a job to that person, and fully explain the estimated income and the benefits from that job, then people will have the incentive to learn new knowledge and the incentive to learn new skills.

Pay people to go to school and give them on the Job Training , just like the Military does. Except this war is a war against ignorance. What knowledge and skills do you use everyday? Can you read? Can you operate a telephone? Can you operate a computer? Can you write? Can you communicate?

What increased benefits would you get if you improved these skills? World View is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the entirety of the individual or society's knowledge and point of view. A world view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential, and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and ethics. Your world view depends on how much relevant knowledge and information that you have and understand, knowledge that is accurate and up to date.

You are what you know, and if what you know is distorted and incomplete, then your world view will become distorted and incomplete. And the only way to overcome this ignorance is to continually educate yourself so that the knowledge and information you acquire gives you a more accurate and complete understanding of yourself and the world around you, which is one of the main goals of BK To many people make the mistake in believing that they know the answers to certain questions , which usually stops a person from learning more, thus people will never have any conformation or proof that their answers are accurate, which is dangerous because it leaves a person vulnerable to mistakes and also vulnerable to being manipulated.

Don't Stop Learning Characteristics of Adult Learners Adult learners have characteristics that set them apart from 'traditional' school or college learners. All adults come to courses with a variety and range of experiences, both in terms of their working life and educational backgrounds. This impacts on how and why they participate in learning. While each student has individual learning needs, there are some characteristics that are common to adult learners: Adults have accumulated life experiences.

Adults come to courses with experiences and knowledge in diverse areas. They tend to favor practical learning activities that enable them to draw on their prior skills and knowledge. Adults are realistic and have insights about what is likely to work and what is not. They are readily able to relate new facts to past experiences and enjoy having their talents and knowledge explored in a teaching situation.

Adults have established opinions , values and beliefs which have been built up over time and arrived at following experience of families, relationships, work, community, politics, etc. These views cannot be dismissed and must be respected. Interference Theory is theory regarding human memory. Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material.

Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. And Retroactive interference occurs when newly learned information interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information. This is because most people never learned what learning is , so most people don't have the knowledge or skills to learn things, so they will never continue to learn, and gradually become more and more intelligent each day.

This is why schools fail. They don't teach students what learning is, or do they teach what valuable knowledge is. You learn how to swim so that you don't have to worry about drowning. You learn how to ride a bike so that you have the freedom to travel anytime that you want. You learn how learn so that you can understand more about yourself and the world around you, so you never have to worry about your ignorance keeping you from having a life that you choose, or stopping you from pursuing your dreams.

Adults are intrinsically motivated. But just being born with motivation will not help you until you learn things that are valuable and important. When you're hungry you are motivated to eat, but it f you eat unhealthy food, then you will suffer and die early. Learners increase their effort when motivated by a need, an interest, or a desire to learn. They are also motivated by the relevance of the material to be addressed and learn better when material is related to their own needs and interests.

For learners to be fully engaged in learning their attention must be fully focused on the material presented. Individual differences. Adults learn at various rates and in different ways according to their intellectual ability, educational level, personality and cognitive learning styles. Teaching strategies must anticipate and accommodate differing comprehension rates of learners. Adults learn best in a democratic, participatory and collaborative environment. Adults need to be actively involved in determining how and what they will learn, and they need active, not passive, learning experiences.

Adult students are mature people and prefer to be treated as such. Being 'lectured at' causes resentment and frustration. Adults need to know why they are learning something. Adults have needs that are concrete and immediate. They can be impatient with long discussions on theory and like to see theory applied to practical problems. They are task or problem-centered rather than subject-centered. Adults tend to be more interested in theory when it is linked to practical application.

Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They are self-reliant learners and prefer to work at their own pace. Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn and when they have identified their own learning needs. Where a student is directed by someone else to attend a course, e. This can lead to a mismatch of goals between all parties - student, employer and trainer. Adults are practical and problem-solvers. Adults are more impatient in the pursuit of learning objectives. They are less tolerant of work that does not have immediate and direct application to their objectives. Adults are sometimes tired when they attend classes.

Many students are juggling classes with work, family, etc. They, therefore, appreciate varied teaching methods that add interest and a sense of liveliness to the class. Adults may have logistical considerations, including. Ageing concerns. Class #09: Individual Differences

Adults frequently worry about being the oldest person in a class and are concerned about the impact this may have on their ability to participate with younger students. Creating an environment where all participants feel they have a valuable contribution can work to allay such concerns. Learning Analytics Adults may have insufficient confidence. Students come to class with varying levels of confidence. Some may have had poor prior experiences of education leading to feelings of inadequacy and fear of study and failure. This can manifest itself in many ways, as indicated in the next section.

Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning. These principles are distilled from research from a variety of disciplines. Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning Learning Impediments PDF Limiting a key chemical messenger Adenosine in the brain helps extend efficient auditory learning much later in life. Bias Students come into courses with knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes gained in other courses and through daily life.

As students bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they filter and interpret what they are learning. However, when knowledge is inert, insufficient for the task, activated inappropriately, or inaccurate, it can interfere with or impede new learning. Stages of Learning How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know. Students naturally make connections between pieces of knowledge. When those connections form knowledge structures that are accurately and meaningfully organized, students are better able to retrieve and apply their knowledge effectively and efficiently.

In contrast, when knowledge is connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or apply it appropriately.